Health care for fugitives is regulated by the Asylum Seekers Benefits Act (Asylbewerberleistungsgesetz, among others, § 4 and 6 AsylbLG). In the first 15 months, this gives rise to a claim for reimbursement of costs for reduced medical benefits for acute illnesses, pregnancy and birth. Only then can someone seeking protection receive benefits in accordance with social care, provided they have not themselves influenced the duration of their stay by abusing the law.
The limited access to health care is massively intensified in the ANKER centres. Residents* can only use the services of doctors* working in the camp. Although attempts are made to ensure the presence of as many different specialists as possible within the camps, their time resources are limited. For example, there is often a lack of sufficient gynaecological services and midwives. It is up to the authorities to assess whether the patient is referred to a specialist outside the centres or whether treatment is granted. The competence for this assessment is more than often questionable. However, since those affected lack the means and the support to claim their rights, this hurdle cannot be overcome for many. The living conditions for vulnerable groups are unreasonable in the ANKER centres. Particularly vulnerable people, for example people with mental disorders and people who have suffered torture, rape or other serious forms of psychological or physical violence, are entitled to specific support under the EU reception directives. The recognition of these specific needs is not guaranteed in these large collective accommodations. Even if those with special needs are known, the necessary consequences are often not drawn. The stay in ANKER centres thus intensifies the symptoms and stress of the individuals concerned.
The restrictive living conditions, the lack of perspective and the low self-efficacy also increase psychological and physical suffering. Accommodations such as the Bavarian ANKER centres create vulnerability and are therefore unacceptable for anyone.
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